Chris Anderson

"Up until now, the focus has been on dozens of markets of millions, instead of millions of markets of dozens.”
(Anderson, 2006)


Jean Baudrillard

“(O)bjects are categories of objects which quite tyrannically include categories of persons. They undertake the policing of social meanings, and the significations they engender are controlled. Their proliferation, simultaneously arbitrary and coherent, is the best vehicle for a social order, equally arbitrary and coherent, to materialize itself effectively under the sign of affluence”.

(Baudrillard, 1976, 413)

“The concepts of ‘environment’ and ‘ambience’ have undoubtedly become fashionable only since we have come to live in less proximity to other human beings, in their presence and discourse, and more under the silent gaze of deceptive and obedient objects which continuously repeat the same discourse, that of our stupefied power, of our potential affluence and of our absence from one another”
(Baudrillard, 1970, 29)


Pierre Bourdieu

“The definition of cultural nobility is the stake in a struggle which has gone on unceasingly, from the seventeenth century to the present day, between groups differing in their ideas of culture and of the legitimate relation to culture and to works of art, and therefore differing in the conditions of acquisition of which these dispositions are the product. Even in the classroom, the dominant definition of the legitimate way of appropriating culture and art favors those who have had early access to legitimate culture, in a cultured household, outside of scholastic disciplines."
(Bourdieu, 1979,2)

"Consumption is, in this case, a stage in the process of communication, that is, an act of deciphering, decoding, which presupposes practical or explicit mastery of a cipher or code."
(Bourdieu, 1979, 3).


Stuart Ewan

"(A)s style becomes a rendition of social history, it silently and ineluctably transforms that history from a process of human conflict and motivations, an engagement with social interests and forces into a market mechanism, a fashion show."
(Ewan, 1987, 1082)

Whatever significance or value the expression may have had in the context of its earlier development, that value was now outweighed by its exchange value, its ability to make something marketable hip. When its marketability had been consumed, the phrase – like so much else – achieved the status of cultural waste matter.
(Ewan, 1987, 1082)


Dick Hebdige

“Objects borrowed from the most sordid of contexts found a place in the punk’s ensembles: lavatory chains were draped in graceful arcs across chests encased in plastic bin-liners. Safety pins were taken out of their domestic ‘utility’ context and worn as gruesome ornaments through cheek, ear or lip”.
(Hebdige, 1979, 1067)

We could go one further and say that even if the poverty was being parodied, the wit was undeniably barbed; that beneath the clownish make-up there lurked the unaccepted and disfigured face of capitalism; that beyond the horror circus antics a divided and unequal society was being eloquently condemned.

(Hebdige, 1979, 1073)


Frederic Jameson

"The older kinds of folk and genuinely ‘popular’ culture which flourished when the older social classes of a peasantry and an urban artisanant still existed and which, from the mid-nineteenth century on, have gradually been colonized and extinguished by commodification and the market system."
(Jameson, 1988, 112)

"In contemporary terminology, then, we might say that ‘use value’ is the realm of difference and differentiation as such whereas ‘exchange value’ will as we shall see, come to be described as the realm of identities."
(Jameson, 1991, 221).

Pastiche is, like parody, the imitation of a peculiar or unique, idiosyncratic style, the wearing of a linguistic mask, speech in a dead language. But it is a neutral practice of such mimicry, without any of parody’s ulterior motives, amputated of the satiric impulse, devoid of laughter and of any conviction that alongside the abnormal tongue you have momentarily borrowed, some healthy linguistic normality still exits. Pastiche is thus blank parody, a statue with blind eyeballs
(Jameson, 1991, 17).

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